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Pratyahara marks the transition of yoga experience from first four limbs that perfect external forms to last three limbs that perfect inner state, from outside to inside, from outer sphere of body to inner sphere of spirit.Dhyana is contemplating, reflecting on whatever Dharana has focused on.Furthermore, before the time of Bhoja (11th century), no known text states that the authors were the same. All such arguments [for a late date] are problematic." Michele Desmarais summarizes a wide variety of dates assigned to Yogasutra, ranging from 500 BCE to 3rd century CE, noting that there is a paucity of evidence for any certainty.Bryant concludes that "A number of scholars have dated the Yoga Sūtras as late as the fourth or fifth century C. She states the text may have been composed at an earlier date given conflicting theories on how to date it, but latter dates are more commonly accepted by scholars.According to Wujastyk, referencing Maas, Patanjali integrated yoga from older traditions in Pātañjalayogaśāstra, and added his own explanatory passages to create the unified work that, since 1100 CE, has been considered the work of two people.Edwin Bryant states that, to Patanjali, "Yoga essentially consists of meditative practices culminating in attaining a state of consciousness free from all modes of active or discursive thought, and of eventually attaining a state where consciousness is unaware of any object external to itself, that is, is only aware of its own nature as consciousness unmixed with any other object." Patanjali, in Book 2, states how and why each of the above self restraints help in the personal growth of an individual.Dhyana is integrally related to Dharana, one leads to other.Dharana is a state of mind, Dhyana the process of mind.
Patanjali defines contemplation (Dhyana) as the mind process, where the mind is fixed on something, and then there is "a course of uniform modification of knowledge".
Patanjali does not list any specific asana, except the terse suggestion, "posture one can hold with comfort and motionlessness".